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A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of a drug called Pressure Drop X on lowering blood pressure


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Question 1 (2 points)


A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of a drug called Pressure Drop X on lowering blood pressure in a group of women between the ages of 60 and 80 years old. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 women took a tablet containing Pressure Drop X for 3 weeks – 95 of these women experienced decreased  blood pressure by at least 10%. Another group of 150 women were given a tablet with no added Pressure Drop X for 3 weeks – 10 of these women decreased their blood pressure by 10%. What are the controlled variables in this experiment?

Question 1 options:


Amount of Pressure Drop X


Blood pressure


The age and gender of the participants


The 3 week time period and sample size of 150


The group of women that received the pills with no added Pressure Drop X


Question 2 (2 points)


The effectiveness of a medication containing growth hormone is tested on a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age. The best control group would be:

Question 2 options:


(a)   any group of rabbits


(b)   a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age, not given the medication


(c)   a group of young female rabbits 3 weeks of age, not given the medication


(d)   a group of male adult rabbits


(e)   no control is required; just measure whether the rabbits grew

Question 3 (2 points)


A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___________, while a substance with a pH less that 7 is ___________.

Question 3 options:


A ) basic, acidic


B ) acidic, basic


C ) basic, neutral


D ) neutral, acidic


E ) neutral, basic


Question 4 (2 points)


What is the chemical bond called in which 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons?

Question 4 options:









Question 5 (2 points)


Which macromolecule is the primary energy source for organisms?

Question 5 options:


A)    Sunlight


B)    Protein


C)    Fat


D)    Carbohydrate


E)    Nucleic acid


Question 6 (2 points)


You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well-defined nucleus. What type of cell is this?

Question 6 options:









Question 7 (2 points)


What is the atomic number of an element with 6 protons, 7 neutrons and 6 electrons?

Question 7 options:










Question 8 (2 points)


Which of the following statements about mitosis and meiosis is *NOT* true?

Question 8 options:


The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis are haploid.


Meiosis and meiosis both starts with one cell, meiosis ends with four and mitosis with two.


Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.


Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.


Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.

Question 9 (2 points)


Which organelle contains digestive enzymes that may degrade different kinds of macromolecules?

Question 9 options:




Endoplasmic reticulum






Golgi body


Question 10 (2 points)


What are two atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers, called?

Question 10 options:











Question 11 (2 points)


Which of the following organisms are capable of cellular respiration?

Question 11 options:


Poplar Trees


Portabella Mushrooms


Polar Bears


Brown Algae


All of these organisms are capable of cellular respiration


Question 12 (2 points)


Consider a cell that underwent mitosis but not cytokinesis. What would the result be?

Question 12 options:


One cell with one nucleus containing twice the normal number of chromosomes


One cell with two nuclei, each containing a normal number of chromosomes


Two daughter cells that are unusually small


Two daughter cells with no nucleus


Two daughter cells with twice the number of chromosomes


Question 13 (2 points)


In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant. The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?

Question 13 options:











Question 14 (2 points)


A man carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome. Who will he pass this on to? 

Question 14 options:


All of his daughters


Half of his daughters


All of his sons


Half of his sons


Question 15 (2 points)


Proteins are made based on information stored in genes through the process of ______ and ______

Question 15 options:












Question 16 (2 points)


Which type of human cells are responsible for passing genes on to the next generation?

Question 16 options:









Question 17 (2 points)


What is the smallest biological unit that can evolve?

Question 17 options:



Question 18 (2 points)


What is a recessive trait?

Question 18 options:


A trait that not everyone in your family share


A trait only visible when organisms are heterozygous for the responsible gene


A trait that a person carries but that does not affect the phenotype


A trait that appears when a person has two recessive alleles for that gene


The least common variation of that trait in a population


Question 19 (2 points)


Biomedical researchers study species as disparate as worms, fruit flies, mice, zebrafish, or rhesus monkeys to understand our genes, and even our diseases. Why?

Question 19 options:


Because these species have many inherited features that are very similar to our own.


Because these species are all prokaryotes, and therefore their genes are 99.9% identical to one another.


Because they make up an interconnected food web when bacteria are added.


Because rhesus monkeys gave us the Rh+ factor when they bit our ancestors.

Question 20 (2 points)


Why are most food chains limited to three to five trophic levels?

Question 20 options:


The higher the trophic level, the larger the organism; the larger the organism, the less likely it will be prey.


The nutritional quality of existing biomass decreases with increasing trophic level.


Most ecosystems have insufficient space to support the increased number of organisms that more trophic levels would require.


There is insufficient energy to support more trophic levels.


Question 21 (2 points)


The site of protein synthesis in the cell is ___________________________.

Question 21 options:


A ) the mitochondria


B ) the nucleus


C ) the Golgi apparatus


D ) the ribosomes

Question 22 (2 points)


The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called

Question 22 options:




A ) facilitated diffusion


B ) active transport


C ) osmosis


D ) phagocytosis


E ) endocytosis


Question 23 (2 points)


If you place a dialysis tubing permeable only to water filled with 10% sucrose solution into a beaker filled with a 30% solution of sucrose, what would you expect? 

Question 23 options:


Water flows into the dialysis tubing.


Water flows out of the dialysis tubing.


Nothing happens.


Sucrose diffuses out of the tubing.


Sucrose diffuses into the tubing

Question 24 (2 points)


While cooking dinner you spill olive oil all over your new T-shirt and jeans.  Not wanting them to be stained, you decide to wash both.  You throw the T-shirt in with a load of other "whites" and wash with hot water.  The jeans are new and a dark blue so you decide to wash them in cold water.  You use the same detergent and drying conditions for both the shirt and jeans.  When folding, you notice the T-shirt is nice and clean, however, the jeans still have a large oil stain.  Curious as to why that is, you develop a hypothesis.  Which of the following is the best hypothesis:

Question 24 options:


It is impossible to remove oil stains from new jeans.


Wash conditions have no impact on removal of oil stains. 


Enzymes in the detergent work most effectively in cold water.


Temperature, wash cycle length and inclusion of fabric softener can all impact the ability to remove oil from stained clothes.


Question 25 (2 points)


Which of the following elements is NOT a core component of DNA?

Question 25 options:









Question 26 (2 points)


Which of the following statements about autism is true:

Question 26 options:


Research has clearly demonstrated that autism is the sole result of the MMR vaccine.


All cases or autism are caused by environmental pollutants.


The causes of autism is complex and no single contributor is responsible.


Genetics does not play a role in the development of autism.


Question 27 (2 points)


If adenine makes up 20% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are guanine?

Question 27 options:










Question 28 (2 points)


A couple has two male children. What is the probability that their next child will be female?

Question 28 options:














Question 29 (2 points)


Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve are produced ___________.

Question 29 options:


A ) by chance


B ) as a response to environmental


C ) as a response to selection pressure


D ) by natural selection


E ) by artificial selection


Question 30 (2 points)


Dr. Kitty Hauke is studying lobsters in Maine.  She noticed that over several years the average length of pincers had increased within this population.  She hypothesized that having larger pincers provided a fitness advantage.  To test her hypothesis, she introduced 75 large pincer lobsters and 75 small pincer lobsters into an isolated bay area that was similar to the lobsters' natural sea environment.  Over 10 years, Dr. Hauke observed this isolated population of lobsters.  What would she likely observe if her hypothesis was incorrect?

Question 30 options:


A)    The percent of lobsters with large pincers would decrease.


B)    There were fewer small pincer lobsters mating during mating season.


C)    More large pincer lobsters could be found mating during mating season.


D)    The percent of lobsters with large pincers would increase.


Question 31 (2 points)


Certain fungi that are important in nutrient recycling because they release nutrients from dead organisms back into the ecosystem are _____________________.

Question 31 options:


A ) producers


B ) consumers


C ) decomposers


D ) recyclers


E ) feeders


Question 32 (2 points)


What is the single greatest threat to biodiversity today?

Question 32 options:


Habitat destruction and fragmentation


Invasive species






Question 33 (2 points)



This is a Tomato Hornworm, the caterpillar stage of the five-spotted hawkmoth (Manduca quinquemaculata). The white objects protruding from the back of the caterpillar are wasp eggs. When the larvae hatch they will feed on the worm.Which term best describes the relationship between the wasps and the Tomato hornworms?

Question 33 options:










Question 34 (2 points)


Why do some scientists argue that viruses are non-living?

Question 34 options:


Viruses evolve


Viruses are able to reproduce


Viruses have an organized and complex structure


Viruses are not made of cells


Question 35 (2 points)


Which of the following activities decreases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?

Question 35 options:


A ) Cutting down trees.


B ) Driving gasoline powered vehicles.


C ) Using electricity from coal-powered plants.


D ) Planting trees.


E ) Heating your home.


Question 36 (2 points)


How does high heat impact most enzymes? 

Question 36 options:


Enzyme activity is decreased due to hydrolysis


Enzymes are inactivated due to denaturation


Enzyme activity is increased due to saturation


Since enzymes are temperature independent activity will remain the same. 


Question 37 (2 points)


If life on another planet were fundamentally like life on earth, the macromolecules of living things would be based on which element?

Question 37 options:


A.    Carbon


B.    Hydrogen


C.    Nitrogen


D.    Oxygen


E.    Phosphorus


Question 38 (2 points)


Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?

Question 38 options:


Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals.


Respiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic.


Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.


ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration.


Photosynthesis produces energy, respiration uses energy.


Question 39 (4 points)


Over a few beers, a friend tells you that mangoes have more vitamin C than oranges.  Having taking a nutrition class, you know that the amount of vitamin C is very well established and are dubious of your friends claim.  You therefore formulate a hypothesis: "Mangoes contain more vitamin C than oranges." To test this hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 mangoes from trees that were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental conditions (temperature, rain, sunlight). Select all statements that are true about this experiment.

Question 39 options:


The control group in the experiment is the oranges


The independent variable is temperature


The dependent variable is the vitamin C levels in the mangoes and oranges


The type of fruit is a controlled variable


Question 40 (10 points)


A graduate student injects 10 mice with a chemical compound commonly found in the environment and finds that all of his animals die within a few days. Eager to publish his results, the student comes to you, his adviser. What would you suggest the student do before publishing his results? Help him design a controlled experiment. State a good hypothesis, describe the experiment, identify the control group, independent, dependent and controlled variables. 

Question 40 options:



Question 41 (10 points)


The brown bracts of the plant Monotropsis odorata resemble leaf litter, which affords them protection from predators. Describe four characteristics of life you could identify to distinguish these plants from the dead leaves they mimic.

Question 41 options:


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