List and briefly explain the four steps in the scientific method.

BIOL 320 Final Examination Answers

1) List and briefly explain the four steps in the scientific method.

2) Which of the following is the correct order of steps in the scientific method?


Aexperiment, observation, hypothesis, conclusion

Bobservation, experiment, hypothesis, conclusion

Chypothesis, experiment, observation, conclusion

Dobservation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion

3) The two most important organelles in forensic DNA analysis are the

4) The DNA laboratory genotypes three suspects DNA extracted from blood, and DNA extracted from hair roots found at the scene. When the technician draws a conclusion based on the genotyping results, the forensic term for this test or process is called

5) An experiment is designed to test a hypothesis.




6) Due to television shows jurors are expecting to see perfect fingerprints and analyzable DNA on guns and other evidence.  The absence of which has led jurors to exonerate otherwise guilty suspects.  This is known as the

7) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

8) Y- Chromosomes

9) Nuclear DNA

10) A mother is claiming that the only brother of her best friend is the father of her child.  The brother is serving at a remote location in the easternmost reaches of Turkey.  At the behest of his sister, the brother voluntarily provides DNA for a paternity test. Which of the following are the possible results and conclusions of the tests?

11) How many permanent teeth are typically found in a human mouth?

12) Measurements made on this bone, provide an accurate method of estimating the stature from skeletal remains

13) Given that the offspring of human parents has the dominant phenotype freckles and cleft chin, the parents’ gametes could be...

14) In a Punnett square, the letters that line the outside of the box represent...

15) If all thousand offspring of a cross have the genotype Aa, the parents of the cross are most likely...

16) If the first child of a couple was without dimples, a recessive trait, what is the chance that the second child will be born without dimples?

17) If a gamete with genotype Aa fertilized another gamete with genotype aa, the offspring genotype could be...

18) What is the phenotype ratio for a cross between Aa and Aa

19) What is the genotype ratio of a Aa x Aa cross?

20) Which of the following parts of a human cell contain information useful to a forensic investigator?

21) In a population of 100 individuals, the genotype frequency of allele 17.1 is .25, then ____ individuals have this allele.

22) DNA is a(n)

23) Which of the following base pairs is incorrect?

24) PCR is a technique that…

25) Given the following DNA sequence:  5'-CAGTCA-3', the complementary strand is

26) Which of the following is a use of forensic entomology?

27: Which of the following insects are most likely found during the first stages of decomposition? 

28) The technical term for an insect laying eggs is

31) Briefly describe the three steps used in PCR?

32) Which of the following is not a characteristic of rigor mortis?


A Upon death, the loss of calcium transport in muscle cells, muscle cells continually contract.

B Rigor Mortis first starts with small muscles in the face and these muscles are the last to relax after several days.

C The rate of rigor mortis is independent upon the victim’s activity and the victim’s age.

D Rigor mortis in and of itself cannot always be a reliable predictor of time since death.

33) Which of the following bones are not used for sex estimation in adults:













34) Which of the following is incorrectly matched?

Aoviposit: egg layer

Binstars: growth stage

Clarviposit: pupae layer

Dnymph:  wingless version of an adult insect


35) Hemoglobin contains an

6) True/False: DNA is single stranded and RNA is double stranded.