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(TCO 1) Prison populations have increased in the United States because of _____.

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1. (TCO 1) Prison populations have increased in the United States because of _____.

2. (TCO 1) A crime punishable by confinement in a local jail for a year or less is

3. (TCO 1) A crime that is a violation of a local ordinance and is punishable by only a fine is

4. (TCO 1) The United States crime rate is calculated by _____.

5. (TCO 1) The Uniform Crime Report Part I index of major offenses includes all but which?

6. (TCO 2) The first written laws of Rome were called _____.

7. (TCO 2) Culleus was _____.

8. (TCO 2) The religious group _____ sometimes burned witches and unruly slaves; made wide use of the stocks, the pillory, and the ducking stool; branded criminal offenders; and forced women convicted of adultery to wear “scarlet letters.”

9. (TCO 2) A device consisting of nine knotted cords fastened to a wooden handle used for whipping a convicted subject was

10. (TCO 2) Punishment as vengeance is also called

11. (TCO 2) Which is a punishment philosophy that holds that criminal offenders are morally blameworthy and are therefore deserving of punishment?

12. (TCO 2) The concept of just deserts de-emphasizes the emotional component of revenge by claiming that criminal acts are _____ of punishment.

13. (TCO 2) If you punish an individual seeking to change, which is that person’s behavior called?

14. (TCO 2) According to the text, punishment must be _____ in order to serve as an effective deterrent.

15. (TCO 2) Statistically, the typical probationer is which?

16. (TCO 2) The halting or suspension, before conviction, of formal criminal proceedings against a person, conditional upon some form of counter-performance by the defendant, is called which?

17. (TCO 2) If you lived in Philadelphia and were charged with possession and use of a small amount of crack cocaine, you would _____.

18. (TCO 2) The conditional release of a convicted offender into the community under the supervision of a probation officer is called which?

19. (TCO 2) A way to keep the offender at home in the community, avoid incarceration, and carry out sanctions imposed by the court or probation agency is called which?

20. (TCO 2) Sanctions that move offenders from higher levels of control to lower ones for the final phase of their sentences are

21. (TCO 2) The control of offenders in the community under strict conditions by means of frequent reporting to a probation officer whose caseload is generally limited to 30 offenders is called _____.

22. (TCO 2) The nation’s first drug court was developed in which city?

23. (TCO 2) Community service is

24. (TCO 3) _____ are locally operated correctional facilities that confine people before and after conviction.

25. (TCO 3) Which of the following was not one of the four jail reforms passed by Parliament in 1779?

1. (TCO 3) The religious order that pushed for prison reform of the Walnut Street Jail was which?

2. (TCO 3) The “poorhouses of the twentieth century” are

3. (TCO 3) A jail where the staff remains in a secure control booth surrounded by inmate housing areas called pods is called which?

4. (TCO 3) Which statement is most true?

5. (TCO 3) The first historical phase of prison discipline, involving solitary confinement in silence instead of corporal punishment, was called which?

6. (TCO 3) _____ of isolation and silence became popular in Europe.

7. (TCO 3) A system of prison industry that employs prisoners to manufacture products consumed by state governments and institutions is the

8. (TCO 3) Who said, “America is the land of the second chance, and when the gates of the prison open, the path ahead should lead to a better life”?

9. (TCO 4) The conditional release of a prisoner, prior to completion of the imposed sentence, under the supervision of the state, is

10. (TCO 4) The Wickersham Commission reported that parole was logical because it _____.

11. (TCO 4) The parole concept has its roots in an 18th-century English penal practice of which?

12. (TCO 4) In 1840, British Navy Captain _____ was appointed Superintendent of Norfolk Island.

13. (TCO 5) The patterns of behavior expected of correctional staff members in particular jobs are

14. (TCO 5) Wardens, superintendents, assistant superintendents, and others charged with running the institution and its programs are called which?

15. (TCO 5) Psychologists, psychiatrists, medical doctors, nurses, teachers, and others who contract with the institution to provide services are called which?

16. (TCO 5) Inmates’ belief that a correctional officer can, and will, punish disobedience gives the officer which?

17. (TCO 5) The author _____ coined the term total institution

18. TCO 5) Which is the title of the book that Erving Goffman wrote?

19. (TCO 5) Donald Clemmer coined the term _____.

20. (TCO 5) Which was not one of the “pains of imprisonment”?

21. (TCO 5) The historical policy of American courts not intervening in the affairs of prison management was

22. (TCO 6) Which is not a source of prisoners’ rights?

23. (TCO 6) Constitutional rights of inmates may be restricted by all except _____.

24. (TCO 6) The first 10 amendments to the U. S. Constitution are known as which?

25. (TCO 6) A _____ is a civil wrong.

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