(TCO 1) The large numerical difference between the number of crimes reported and the number of offenders convicted and facing any specific correctional sanction can be represented by _____.
(TCO 1) A legislative authorization to provide a specific range of punishment for a specific crime is a _____.
(TCO 1) The effect of punishment on an individual offender that prevents that person from committing future crimes is _____.
(TCO 1) _____ is a theory of corrections that offenders are sick, inflicted with problems that cause their criminality, and need to be diagnosed and treated.
(TCO 1) The sentencing goals of corrections are punishment, _____, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and _____.
(TCO 2) A programmed effort to alter the attitudes and behaviors of inmates and improve their likelihood of becoming law abiding citizens is called _____.
(TCO 2) A _____ is an agreement in which the defendant pleads guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence.
(TCO 2) A reward for good behavior that gives inmates the opportunity to reduce their time served in prison is often called _____.
(TCO 2) A _____ is a person who guarantees the accused person's appearance in court.
(TCO 2) Statistical approaches to calculating the risk of escape and violence by inmates are called _____.
(TCO 2) A requirement that an offender pay restitution to the victim as a part of the sentence is a(n) _____.
(TCO 2) _____ describes the management of inmates with suicidal tendencies who are placed in specially designed cells and have constant supervision.
(TCO 2) The oldest correctional component in America, the one that confines people before or after adjudication, is the ______.
(TCO 3) The _____ is the number of people per 100,000 residents who are in jail or prison.
(TCO 3) Violations of conditions of community supervision without commission of a new crime are _____.
(TCO 4) The job in a halfway house that primarily entails the control of residents' access into and out of the facility is usually called the _____.
(TCO 4) _____ refers to the overlapping of criminal sanctions and added supervision for community-placed offenders, rather than diversion of offenders from prison.
(TCO 4) The first jails were created in _____.
(TCO 4) A _____ is any secure correctional facility operated by other than a governmental agency and usually in a for-profit manner.
(TCO 5) _____ is used to match offenders to institutions that have the physical security and staff resources to prevent escapes and control their behavior.
(TCO 5) The _____ is a system of prisons and detention facilities for the incarceration of inmates sentenced for federal crimes and for the detention of individuals awaiting trial or sentencing in federal court.
(TCO 5) Prior to modern parole, _____ were credits that inmates earned through work and good behavior in order be released from prison.
(TCO 5) _____ was the final stage in a system used by Alexander Maconochie in which prisoners earned a conditional pardon and release.
(TCO 5) Elements of David Fogel's justice model of corrections included a return to determinate sentencing, making treatment voluntary, and _____.
(TCO 5) Andrew von Hirsch's just-desserts model was a return to the _____ model of criminology, in which the punishment fit the crime.
(TCO 6) _____ are responsible for all functions in a prison, including food service, healthcare, and sanitation, as well as security, inmate programs, and legal issues.
(TCO 6) Male offenders are much more likely to be involved in _____ than female offenders.
(TCO 7) _____ is not an element related to successful programs for women.
(TCO 7) _____ are specifically designed to help offenders reduce their likelihood of further alcohol or drug abuse.
(TCO 7) In 1891, the _____ authorized the construction of the first three federal prisons.
(TCO 7) _____ is a form of release in which inmates serve the full portion of their sentence and are not supervised upon release.
(TCO 7) _____ prescribe a presumptive time to be served based on the seriousness of the crime and the factors predictive of success for each inmate.
(TCO 7) _____ is a point determination used in parole decision making for each inmate in which the score is based on factors that predict success on parole.
(TCO 7) A _____ is similar to an indictment for adults.
(TCO 7) Inmates with no specific designation as a special type of offender go into a prison's _____.
(TCO 7) In a _____, a juvenile court judge determines that a juvenile offender is moved from the juvenile justice system to adult court.